Top 10 Male fertility Glossaries you need to know

Gone are the days when reproduction was viewed only from a female perspective. Nowadays, more and more men are trying to improve their knowledge about fertility. Due to changes in lifestyle, infertility in men is also rising. Even if men have healthy diets and exercise regularly, many other factors can contribute to infertility. Their fertility is affected if they are smokers, heavy drinkers, or work in toxic chemical environments. Hence, it is good to understand some of the male fertility terms to easily navigate the world of fertility. In this blog, we are explaining the top 10 male fertility terminologies used.

Top 10 Male Fertility Glossaries you need to Know.

  1. Azoospermia: Azoospermia is a male infertility condition with a complete absence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate. A fertile male’s sperm count is 15 million/mL or more. If the sperm concentration is less than 15 million/mL, it is called oligozoospermia or oligospermia. But in the cases of azoospermia, there is no measurable sperm in your ejaculate. In an Obstructive type of azoospermia, there is a blockage or missing connection in the epididymis, vas deferens, or elsewhere along your reproductive tract. It means that the male is producing sperm, but it’s getting blocked from exit hence no measurable amount of sperm in your semen. In a non-obstructive type of azoospermia, there are defects in the structure or function of the testicles or other causes.
  2. Cryopreservation: Sperm cryopreservation is the process of collecting, freezing and storing sperm. When the male is ready to undergo IVF or an IUI, the frozen sperm is thawed and used.

  1. Embryo: An embryo is a multicellular organism’s initial development stage. Embryonic development is that phase of the life cycle which begins just after fertilization of the female egg cell by the male sperm cell. Fertilization begins the process of the development of an embryo with the creation of a zygote, a single cell resulting from the fusion of egg and sperm. The zygote later develops into a multicellular embryo after going through a series of stages, such as cleavage, blastula, gastrulation, and organogenesis.
  2. Ejaculatory Duct: The ejaculatory ducts are a crucial pair in male anatomy. They are each formed by the union of the vas deferens with the duct of the seminal vesicle. They pass through the prostate and open into the urethra above the seminal colliculus.
  3. Fertilization: Fertilization is an entire process which starts with the penetration of an egg by a sperm. The genetic material subsequently combines, which results in the development of an individual. The whole process is a complex multistep process which takes 24 hours to complete. The sperm of the male partner meets the female egg resulting in a zygote, which is the starting point of pregnancy.
  4. Prostate: The prostate is an essential part of the male reproductive system. The whole system is a combination of the penis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and testicles. It is located just below the bladder, right in front of the rectum. This walnut-sized gland surrounds the urethra. The prostate gland produces a fluid that mixes with sperm cells and fluids from other glands to make up semen. The prostate muscles aid in forceful passing of semen into the urethra and then expelled outwards during ejaculation.
  5. TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction): In most ARTs, sperm extraction is essential. TESE is a method of sperm retrieval. A needle or a small incision is done to collect a small sample of the testis tissue for the extraction of sperm. TESA is mainly done for IVF/ICSI. The procedure is done in the operating room under local anaesthesia. The timing of TESA is coordinated with their female partner’s egg retrieval. If the male partner suffers from obstructive azoospermia, then TESA is performed. In case TESA doesn’t provide enough tissue/sperm, then an open testis biopsy is needed.

  1. Testosterone: Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone which gets produced in the testicles. Testosterone is not limited to men. Some of this hormone is also generated in women by the ovaries. When young boys and girls hit puberty, testosterone production enhances significantly and starts to dip after the age of 30 or so. Testosterone is responsible for the sex drive and is key to sperm production. Apart from affecting male fertility, It also affects bone and muscle mass, fat storage, and even red blood cell production. Mood swings in men can be associated with fluctuating levels of testosterone.
  2. Urethra: Urethra is an important male organ responsible for transportation. It transports urine from the bladder and semen from the prostate and ejaculatory ducts out via the tip of the penis. This is the end from which both urine and sperm leave the body.
  3. Varicocele: When the varicose vein of the testicles heats the testes, it causes a decrease in sperm production, resulting in male infertility. An estimated 10 to 15 out of 100 males have varicocele. The formation of varicoceles starts around puberty, and they grow larger over time. Since the male anatomy is not the same on both sides, mostly, they are observed on the left side of the scrotum. Developing a Varicocele on both sides at the same time is rare. 

At ZIVA Fertility clinics, we consider fertility from both male and female perspectives. Our counsellors will help you understand everything in detail. We not only treat male infertility issues, but we also help men increase their fertility by counselling them on a healthy lifestyle. Please visit our website or contact us at +91-9100002737, +91-9392834024, or