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What Male Infertility Issues Can be Treated with Surgery?

Infertility is one of the modern-day concerns for many  couples. As per estimates for every seven infertile couples, one case is caused due to male infertility. The condition has no external symptoms and can only be diagnosed clinically. The vast majority of cases of male fertility are due to low healthy sperm count, and only rare cases are due to the complete absence of sperm cells. Several factors cause Male Infertility, and the good news is that it is curable in most of the cases. 

Causes of Male Infertility 

In cases where the condition is caused due to sperm antibodies which are caused by vasectomy or injury in the epididymis, surgery is used to remedy the problem. Types of treatment are decided after a detailed opinion and examination. Major causes are:

  • Sperm transport problems cause infertility for one in every five infertile men. Two-thirds of infertile men face issues with the production of sperm in the testes.
  • Sexual problems affect the entry of semen into the vagina for fertilization.
  • Hormone problems in the testicles or the pituitary gland can be the cause of male infertility as well. 

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Before any surgical treatment, usually non-surgical treatments are tried, which include lifestyle changes and medications. Only when those non-surgical treatments fail, surgical treatments are given. Surgery can restore the capability to conceive naturally in certain cases. 

Surgical procedures for corrections in Male Infertility


Varicocelectomy is recommended when blood backs up along the spermatic cord. During a varicocelectomy, your surgeon will surgically seal off the affected areas and redirect the blood inflow so that healthy sperm is produced. Varicocelectomy can be performed in multiple ways with sedation or general anaesthesia. The surgeon makes a small incision over the inguinal conduit on either side of the groin. Next, they use a special microscope to detect the affected modes inside the spermatic cord, which travels through the inguinal conduits. 

The surgeon closes the incisions with dissolvable stitches. You can go home the same day. Recovery generally takes one to three days, followed by limited movement for two weeks. 

In addition to incision-based Varicocelectomy, the same surgery can be performed via a laparoscope. In this procedure, performed with general anaesthesia, a surgeon makes small incisions in the abdominal area, inserts surgical tools to pinpoint the exact location, and then cuts and ties off the affected parts. 

The incision ports are closed via stitches. You may go home the same day, and recovery takes up to three days. This procedure also limits movement for over two weeks post laparoscopy.

Varicocele Embolization 

Varicocele embolization is another type of varicocele treatment. It is a minimally invasive procedure that moves the blood down from the enlarged varicocele. During the procedure, a catheter is fitted through a 2- to 3- millimetre cut in the groin. The catheter, a long, small tube, travels through the testes. Once the tip of the catheter reaches the damaged testicular area, the surgeon places tiny coils and a liquid substance to divert blood flow away from a varicocele. This is each done under a live X-ray, also called fluoroscopy. The procedure reduces pressure in the varicocele and re-directs the blood through other pathways. The procedure is done under light sedation, and you can return home the same day. 

Transurethral Ejaculatory Duct Resection 

Transurethral ejaculatory tube resection may be performed to open the blocked ejaculatory tube, which is the tube that carries semen from the testicles to the urethra. It may also remove any blockage affecting a man’s ability to excrete sperm. A blockage may be because of trauma to the pelvis or an infection. 

This procedure is generally performed using general anaesthesia. The surgeon inserts a telescopic device called a resectoscope into the urethra and removes any blockage of the tubes. A catheter remains in the urethra for a short period while the surgical area heals. Our ZIVA surgeons analyze the quality of your semen one month after the procedure. The semen volume, number of sperm, shape, and motility are assessed.

Vasectomy Reversal 

Occasionally, men wish to reverse a vasectomy, a surgery used for birth control that prevents the release of sperm during interjection. Different ways can be used for this reversal surgery, which helps to restore fertility by allowing the inflow of sperm. 

Surgeons at ZIVA Fertility center reconnect the vas deferens tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the urethra during intercourse. Each of these two tubes is separated during a vasectomy. 

During a Vasovasectomy, which is performed using a microscope, an opening is created to allow sperm to move through the previously separated ends of the vas deferens. It’s performed if each vas deferens is healthy enough, as determined by the surgeon. During the surgery, sedation or general anaesthesia is administered. 

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In a Vasoepididymostomy, the vas deferens are connected to the epididymis, a tube that transports growing sperm from the testicle to the vas deferens, circumventing blockages caused by the vasectomy. This procedure is performed using general anaesthesia. 

After either type of vasectomy reversal, you’re suitable to go home the same day. Recovery generally takes one to three days, followed by two weeks of limited exertion. 

Microsurgical Testicular Sperm birth 

Microsurgical testicular sperm birth, or microTESE, is recommended for some men with severe deficiencies in sperm. This procedure is done by collaboration between urologists and Reproductive Specialists. For men with severe deficiencies in sperm, this surgery may be the only way to have a natural child. MicroTESE is performed with sedation or general anaesthesia. Your surgeon makes a small scrotum cut and uses a microscope to examine testicle tissue thoroughly. They look for healthy tissue that might produce sperm. If a healthy tissue is found, then the sperm is collected. This healthy sperm can be used immediately to fertilize an egg, or the sperm cells can be frozen, stored and then thawed later to be used for infertility treatment. 

The surgeon closes the cut with dissolvable stitches. Recovery generally takes one to three days, with limited movement recommended for the following two weeks. You don’t have to stay in the hospital, instead, go home on the day of the procedure. 

At ZIVA Fertility center, we understand that discussing your fertility issues is a personal matter for you and emotional for some. That’s why we provide a safe space for you to discuss your infertility issues with us. We offer all advanced surgical procedures which are minimally invasive. After the surgery, we also monitor your progress and if you are willing to help you in the journey towards welcoming a baby. Please visit our website or contact us at +91-9100002737, +91-9392834024, or