Oligospermia is a medical condition where the male has a low sperm count. A healthy sperm count is more than 15 million sperm per ml of semen; if the person’s sperm count is less than 15 million per ml of semen, the condition is known as Oligospermia.
Oligospermia, also known as oligozoospermia, refers to the same condition. Severe Oligospermia is where there is a significantly low sperm count, which is defined as having less than 5 million sperm in one ml of semen.
What are the causes of Oligospermia?
Various contributing factors for Oligospermia are:-
- Celiac disease
- Chromosomal abnormalities, like Klinefelter’s syndrome
- Drugs and Alcohols
- Ejaculation issues, such as retrograde ejaculation
- Hormone imbalance
- Immune system flaws that allow your body to damage sperm
- Industrial chemicals, heavy metals, or radiation exposure
- Infections of the male reproductive organs
- Previous operations or injuries
- Some medications
- Use of Tobacco
- Varicoceles (swollen testicular veins)
How does Oligospermia affect fertility?
Some men with Oligospermia can conceive naturally, whereas it could be a little more challenging for most couples. There are additional reproductive problems, such as sperm motility. An “active” sperm is measured by sperm motility, which means the sperm can readily swim towards an egg during intercourse and fertilize it.
If the sperm cannot travel fast enough to reach an egg, they have abnormal motility. Irregular movement of the sperm also prevents them from reaching the egg.
Diagnosis of Oligospermia
The first line of diagnosis is collecting your medical history, followed by a physical examination. Further testing involves:
- Sperm function tests and sperm analysis
- Hormone testing to check the endocrine systems
- Transrectal and scrotal ultrasounds of the reproductive organs.
- Genetic abnormalities tests
- Urine analysis to check retrograde ejaculation (sperm moving backwards inside you)
Chances of Getting Pregnant with Oligospermia
IVF combined with Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is the first treatment choice for oligozoospermia. This combination ensures that the sperm penetrates the egg cell, and fertilization occurs. In ICSI, the doctors pick only a few sperm under the microscope, making sperm count less important. The healthiest and most potent sperm is selected. The selected sperm is washed off any allergy-causing chemicals before inserting into the female body.
The following are different ways to conceive with a Low Sperm Count:
IUI – Intra Uterine Insemination
If the male has a low sperm count, intrauterine insemination is one of the choices. Since this therapy, people with Mild/Moderate Oligospermia need a particular quantity of sperm to assist in the fertilization process, which is not achievable in cases of severe Oligospermia. The procedure is straightforward and cost-effective, normally yielding positive results if the woman has no infertility concerns.
IVF – In Vitro Fertilization
IVF is the most popular assisted reproductive technology in which sperm and eggs are combined in a petri dish and fertilized. After fertilization, healthy embryos are placed into the woman’s uterus. If natural pregnancy and IUI have failed in certain mild to moderate Oligospermia situations, in vitro fertilization (IVF) is the therapy of choice.
ICSI-IVF and surgical sperm extraction
Sperm retrieval is necessary in men whose sperm count is low or whose sperm quality is poor, such as in cases of severe Oligospermia and even cryptozoospermia, where 0 to rare sperms are found. It is also beneficial in cases where men cannot ejaculate. The sperm can sometimes be directly extracted from the testes or epididymis by sperm aspiration (TESA, Micro-TESE). The sperm retrieved is utilized in combination with IVF for ICSI.
Ray of hope for men with Oligospermia
Low sperm counts can reduce the chances of natural conception. However, it does not rule it out completely. Men with Oligospermia can fertilize their partner’s egg.
A man with Oligospermia can still have genetic children. Only one active sperm is needed to fertilize an egg. In a normal ejaculation, he produces about 100 million sperm on average. These sperm travel from the vaginal canal to the fallopian tube to meet the waiting egg, and this is a difficult voyage that only a few sperm can do.
Stem cell therapy is also a cure, and individuals who have been unable to have children owing to a low sperm count will be able to do so after their sperm quality and quantity have improved. Patients eligible for stem cell therapy have a success rate of 95 per cent or higher.
We at ZIVA Fertility Center treat all types of infertility issues. Male infertility is an area in which we have high success rates. We at ZIVA Fertility Center will discuss all the approaches or strategies that might help you boost your chances of becoming pregnant. Visit our website https://zivafertility.com/ or contact us at +91-9100002737, +91-9392834024