Preimplantation genetic testing (PGD/PGS)
If you decided to undergo an ART procedure like In-vitro-fertilization (IVF) or ICSI, possibly you might have learned many things about these procedures, which is good. However, here are a few more important things you should know for a healthy pregnancy. They include PGD (Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis) and PGS (Preimplantation Genetic Screening). Though PGD & PGS are used together, they have differences.
PGS and PGD are the tests done on the embryo formed during IVF or ICSI. The preimplantation genetic screening technique helps to detect any defects or abnormalities present in the embryo before implantation.
PGD can expose specific disorders like Huntington’s disease or cystic fibrosis. Cell analysis is done for the cells with high chances of passing down to the baby from parents.
PGD or PGS tests aim to eliminate the transfer of unhealthy embryos and to promote healthy pregnancy—these advances in medical technology made a real difference in limiting various congenital disabilities, particularly in an infertile couple.
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
ZIVA fertility clinic offers a high-end preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and can find unaffected embryos with 98% accuracy. The tests involve a biopsy, extracting a few cells from the embryo (a fertilized egg) on the fifth day, sent to a genetic lab for analysis. The tests will provide information related to the genetic changes of the cells taken from the embryo. PGD can diagnose around 2,000 acquired single-gene disorders.
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a procedure used in your IVF treatment before implantation.
Some of the most common disorders diagnosed by PGD tests are:
- BRCA1 & BRCA2 genetic mutations caused breast and ovarian cancers in women
- Sickle-cell anaemia
- Huntington’s disease
- Tay-Sachs disease
- Spinal muscular atrophy etc.
- Hemophilia A
Steps involved in a PGD:
- Cells are collected from the fertilized embryo for a preimplantation genetic diagnostic test.
- The cell’s DNA is then analyzed for the inherited gene that may be problematic in the embryo.
- Once the test is over, the normal embryo will be placed into your uterus.
- Few normal embryos may be preserved for future use. This procedure may take a week for testing.
Preimplantation Genetic Screening (PGS)
PGS helps to find genetic and chromosome abnormalities. Similar to the PGD test, a biopsy is performed on the embryo on the fifth day for genetic screening. The samples are tested for the structure of chromosomes and the total number of chromosomes. Naturally, an embryo consists of 23 chromosomes from the female and 23 from the male during fertilization.
Embryo cells with an equal number of chromosomes are called “euploid,” and those with unequal chromosomes are termed “aneuploid.” Some sources say that chromosome defects result in pregnancy loss or miscarriages and failure of ART procedures.
Preimplantation genetic screening is a technique that aims to improve your chances of a healthy pregnancy by transferring the healthy embryo after tests into the uterus, leaving the unhealthy embryo aside.
Any couple can have these defects, and the risk increases 25% -28% with the woman’s increasing age. An abnormal embryo mostly fails to attach to the lining of the uterus, and even though it is attached, it might lead to pregnancy loss, stillbirth, premature birth, or the baby being born is at risk of disabilities.
Some benefits of PGS include:
- The risk of miscarriage and irregular pregnancy are reduced
- Chromosome abnormalities are diagnosed in the embryo.
- The rate of a healthy pregnancy is improved
- No need to waste your time and money on multiple failed IVF cycles
- The chances of a successful pregnancy are improved even in an aged woman.
PGD/PGS is like a boon to the couple with severe infertility problems, recurrent miscarriages, repetitive IVF failures in older couples trying for pregnancy. It is best to choose IVF with PGS/PGD to prevent complications and to prevent specific defects from spreading to the child.
Nearly 70% of miscarriages or pregnancy loss is because of chromosomal defects in early pregnancy. However, PGS/PGD tests can diagnose these defects early and help you to prevent these miscarriages and other complications. Thus, the chance of a healthy pregnancy also becomes high.
If you decide to undergo IVF or ICSI fertility treatment, ask your fertility expert about the genetic tests. If there are any hereditary problems or if the tests are required for the fertility problem you face, they might suggest you undergo PGD/PGS.
Our fertility doctors at ZIVA Fertility Centre say that PGS/PGD tests have numerous benefits associated with your children’s health as they can diagnose various health ailments before your child is born. For more crystal clear information about PGD/PGS or experiencing any infertility problems, contact our experts at ZIVA Fertility Center for a straightforward solution.